SEPLS generally require high levels of management by humans in order to maintain a sustainable production system that provides for human well-being. Thus their ecosystems are dominated by human activities, including traditional and local practices as well as modern production methods. These activities are considered means of livelihood, as they secure necessities for human lives. Characteristics of people’s means of livelihood in SEPLS around the world are highly site-specific, as SEPLS are unique systems with specific social and ecosystem attributes, functions and services that influence how people manage their resources, which in turn influences the nature of the landscape or seascape itself. It is, therefore, application of people’s ecological knowledge that makes it possible for them to procure the ecosystem services that support their livelihoods and well-being, often instilling a sense of identity and strong link to place in the local resource users.