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Policy Brief
先進国を中心とする木材需要の高まりに応じて、人工林の総面積は過去20年で10倍に拡大した。荒廃地等における人工林の増加は、天然林に対する伐採圧力を緩和し、気候変動の抑制、住民の生計への支援、国家の開発政策への寄与など、極めて重要な役割を担っている。 現在、世界の人工林の60%以上はアジアに存在している。近年におけるアジアの人工林面積の急激な拡大は、特に中国、ベトナム、インドなどにおいて大規模な造林プログラムが実施されてきた結果である。しかし、農村地帯における企業又は政府主導の人工造林は、地域住民を彼らの生活の重要な基盤となっている土地から排除する結果となることが多く、しばしば地域の社会紛争を引き起こしてきた。造林プログラムに地域住民が参加している場合でも、土地利用が制限されるため...
Policy Report
Asian cities have faced problems caused by rapid urbanization for decades. While urbanization can bring economic development to the cities, it also produces decrease of natural resources or environmental deterioration. From the perspective of fresh water related issues, Asian cities are suffering from scarcity of water resources and water...
Policy Brief
IGES Policy Brief
Partly due to the worldwide upsurge in industrial demand for timber, the number of planted forests has increased ten-fold in the last 20 years. These planted forests currently comprise only about 5% of the world’s forest area, but supply 35% of industrial logs and have critical roles to play in releasing pressure on natural forests, mitigating...
Policy Report
This study examines two major transitions in forest governance - decentralisation and state-sponsored (formal) community forestry - with respect to whether they are opening spaces for communities to contribute to sustainable forest management. Our main thesis is that there is a need for democratic decentralisation in order to effectively re-engage...
Research Report
The focus of the Urban Environmental Management Project of the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies in 2005-2007 was on the opportunities and barriers for integration of global environmental concerns into local planning and management, taking greenhouse gas emission reduction as a distant but ultimate goal. Accordingly, the project builds...
Discussion Paper
Author:
Heru Sutomo
Fajar Saumatmaji
Restu Novitarini Djarwoningrum
Jakarta, Indonesian capital with population of around 7.5 millions (Statistics Jakarta, 2004) is striving with transport and environmental problems. World Bank ranked Jakarta as the third most polluted city, not to mention the serious congestion takes place everyday. The dominating private motorcars including motorcycles is evident. Road public...
Report Chapter
In Air Pollution Control in the Transportation Sector: Third Phase Research Report of the Urban Environmental Management Project
Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) is commonly understood to mean a system that emphasises priority for and rapid movement of buses by securing segregated busways, although there is no precise definition of what constitutes a BRT system (International Energy Agency (IEA) 2002; Wright 2005). From an environmental perspective, BRTs have the potential to reduce...