Waste-to-energy (WtE) can be considered as a potential alternative source of energy and is a subject of very considerable interest in both developed and developing countries. In order to provide a guideline for introducing WtE from municipal solid waste (MSW) in Asian countries, investigations were carried out on the overall framework and factors and elements that should be taken up in the guideline. These were based on research into the recent situation of WtE at incineration plants in Japan and technically detailed knowledge obtained from past research in Japan. As a proposed framework, possible main factors are: 1) Confirmation of social conditions, 2) Institutional aspects, 3) Governance capability, 4) Necessity and presence of appropriate technology, 5) Financial aspects and 6) Public awareness & cooperation of residents. Following this, knowledge necessary for the guideline and specific numerical criteria are extracted from the ground data, which including 1) the population of target area of WtE must be at least 70,000 and preferably 100,000 and above. These numbers correspond to plants with capacities at about 50 and 70 ton/d, respectively; and, 2) the low heat value of MSW should be at least 4,500 kJ/kg or higher and preferably higher than 6,000 kJ/kg.