The transport sector provides vital services in urban areas, but at the same time causes serious urban problems. The negative effects of urban transport activities include air pollution, accidents, congestion, noise from road transport, energy consumption, and consumption of land and other natural resources for the production of vehicles and
infrastructure. In addition, urban transportation is one of the most significant sources of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, which cause climate change. These negative effects persist and will worsen in many urban areas in the Asia-Pacific region if the current trend of urbanisation continues.
The most serious environmental effect of transportation is air pollution. The transport sector has been the fastest-growing source of most air pollutant emissions, and the high prevalence of two- and three-wheeled vehicles with two-stroke engines further aggravates the local air pollution in cities in Indonesia, Malaysia, and Thailand, and increasingly in China, India, Vietnam, and other countries in the Asia-Pacific region (ESCAP, 2001). Plans to reduce these negative effects within these cities of the region are needed urgently.
This research aims to collect good practices in the area of transport and to propose strategic policy options (SPOs) to develop systems for environmentally sustainable transport (EST), that is, effectively integrated policy instruments for cities in the Asia-Pacific region, focusing mainly on passenger transport, although not to the total exclusion of freight transport.
This study also aims to develop packages of SPOs reflecting the real situations of the cities, and to assess the SPOs and instruments as applicable by conducting scenario analysis in a number of cities in the Asia-Pacific region, namely, Bangkok (Thailand), Beijing and Taiyuan (China).
This is the background paper for the Final Report of APEIS/RISPO.